Hawker Hunter F.Mk.2 WN904

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Our Hunter was built by Armstrong-Whitworths at Coventry under contract No.6/6315/CB.5b (later 7a) in 1953/54 and was the 17th F.Mk.2 to be produced (a total of 45 were built). At the time of ordering she was expected to cost the country approximately £50,000. Essentially similar to the Hunter F.Mk.1, the F.2 was powered by an Armstrong-Siddeley Sapphire engine rather than the Rolls-Royce Avon used by the F.1. This gave it superior performance to the F.1 (5 knots faster at 45,000 ft and taking 2.5 minutes less to get there; also a higher ceiling than the F.1). It also exhibited fewer problems than the Avon-engined F.1.

WN904 as in service at RAF Wattisham from 1954<br>Artwork copyright Damien Burke
WN904 as in service at RAF Wattisham from 1954
Artwork copyright Damien Burke

WN904 was first flown on 27th July 1954, being delivered to the RAF's 257 (Burma) Squadron on 13th September 1954. As with just about any defence contract, it seems, her price had gone up considerably since the placing of the original contract - her cost to the nation was £102,000 - more than double the initial estimate. Soon painted in squadron colours (green and yellow checks either side of the fuselage roundel), with tail code 'Q' for Queenie, her service career was, however, a short one (in common with most F.2s).

257 Squadron was not fully equipped with Hunter F.2s until February 1955, finally getting rid of the last of their Meteors. These early months of Hunter operations were blighted with bad weather and poor serviceability, with the jets not able to fire their guns due to various problems including excessive vibration and damage caused by ejected ammunition links.

The remainder of 1955 proceeded fairly smoothly for WN904 which was lucky to avoid the more serious problems experienced by some of her sister ships. Her run of good luck, however, did not last. In January 1956 she was declared as Cat 4 - damaged, requiring special facilities or equipment and return to the manufacturer or a contractor for repair. Judging by the only reportable incident in the RAF Wattisham Operational Record Book that involved damage to a 257 Squadron aircraft that month, this may have been because the aircraft carried out an emergency landing on the short runway at RAF Kenley while running low on fuel enroute to RAF Biggin Hill - going through two hedges and over a public road in the process!

Repairs were carried out by the Gloster Aircraft Company but with the improved Hunter F.4 and F.5 in production, the RAF simply didn't need their small number of F.2s any more. 257 Squadron had already begun converting to the F.5 when WN904 was damaged, and they were disbanded with very little warning at the end of March 1957, before WN904 had a chance to be returned to them. The repaired WN904 was therefore struck off charge on 22nd November 1957 and became a ground instructional airframe, 7544M. 257 Squadron had only received clearance for air to air gun firing after WN904's mishap so it is likely that our Hunter never got a chance to fire her guns.

She was then transported to No.12 School of Technical Training at RAF Melksham and by 1959 had moved to No.9 SoTT at RAF Newton. In 1974 her ground instructional duties came to an end and she was donated to the Imperial War Museum at their then-new facility at Duxford. She was put on display there, still wearing the rather anonymous '3' marking she had gained while a ground instructional airframe. While her flying career was short, her ground training career was long enough to make her probably one of the better value Hunter F.Mk.2s to be produced!

WN904 at IWM Duxford, 1976.<br>Photo copyright Alf Blume
WN904 at IWM Duxford, 1976.
Photo copyright Alf Blume

In 1989 WN904 was repainted in a dual scheme showing off the markings of 1 and 56 Squadrons and loaned to the Army to become a gate guard at Waterbeach Barracks (a former RAF station, where later marks of Hunter were flown from). Both 1 and 56 Squadrons operated Hunters from Waterbeach, though not the F.2 version, and of course WN904 never flew with either squadron.

WN904 at Waterbeach Barracks, circa 1990.<br>Photo copyright Airfieldsman (Paul) of AiX/ARG
WN904 at Waterbeach Barracks, circa 1990.
Photo copyright Airfieldsman (Paul) of AiX/ARG

She returned to Duxford in 1998 for a refurbishment as she was looking pretty tired, and had her existing tired paint stripped off before a complete repaint was carried out.

WN904 being repainted at IWM Duxford, 1998.<br>Photo copyright Damien Burke
WN904 being repainted at IWM Duxford, 1998.
Photo copyright Damien Burke

The aircraft returned to Waterbeach's gate in 1999, with a new set of specially manufactured intake and exhaust blanks to replace the authentic items previously fitted which had long since "disappeared". The markings were as before - dual 1 and 56 Squadron colours.

WN904 on the gate at Waterbeach Barracks, 2006.<br>Photo copyright Damien Burke
WN904 on the gate at Waterbeach Barracks, 2006.
Photo copyright Damien Burke

In July 2011 the MoD announced that Waterbeach Barracks would close by 2015, with the based units moving elsewhere. By November it was clear that 39 Engineer Regiment (Air Support) would move from Waterbeach to Kinloss in the summer of 2012, and HQ 12 (Air Support) Engineer Group would move from Waterbeach to RAF Wittering in the summer of 2013. WN904 was to become surplus to requirements, as she had no particular relevance to the departing Army units, or to Kinloss or Wittering.

Upon learning that the aircraft was possibly up for disposal, Sywell Aviation Museum put in a bid to give her a new home.

In late July 2012, we learned that we had been successful, and arrangements were put in place to dismantle WN904 and transport her to Sywell, which was carried out on the 2nd of August. The move went smoothly and WN904 was reassembled the same day outside the Museum building on the edge of Sywell Aerodrome.

Lifting off her plinth at Waterbeach
Lifting off her plinth at Waterbeach

Wings coming off...
Wings coming off...

Airborne without wings!
Airborne without wings!

Road runner
Road runner

Arrival at Sywell
Arrival at Sywell

Airborne for one last time
Airborne for one last time

Thirteen years of exterior display had done WN904 no favours and her paint has faded once more and there had been a considerable build-up of dirt, moss and even lichen. However, IWM Duxford had done a good job back in 1998 and under the muck the airframe has been found to be very sound - with minimal corrosion. The all-important wing spars are in excellent condition with just a little surface pitting around the attachment pin points. Inside the various access panels she is remarkably complete and in good condition. The paint is very thin in places and the roundels had suffered particularly badly.

Before and after cleaning - port wing
Before and after cleaning - port wing

Before and after cleaning - starboard wing
Before and after cleaning - starboard wing

Before and after cleaning - tail
Before and after cleaning - tail

A couple of weeks intensive work on the aircraft including a thorough cleaning and polishing and the application of new roundels and fin flashes in vinyl (courtesy Sprint Graphics) had her looking much better just in time for the 2012 Sywell Jubilee Airshow where she was much admired.

Ready to receive visitors!
Ready to receive visitors!

Shot from on high
Shot from on high

Saluted by the Red Arrows!
Saluted by the Red Arrows!

She has no engine or guns, and we have already found some evidence of the damage that grounded her in 1956 - many of the lower nose panels are from another damaged aircraft (WN901), which backs up the theory that she suffered a landing incident at RAF Kenley. The cockpit was pretty complete, with only a few instruments and control units missing and she has a mostly intact ejection seat and joystick. There has been some moisture ingress, with some of the 'shelf' panels in the cockpit hiding small swimming pools. Single-seat Hunters are notorious for the cockpits leaking like sieves so we consider the relatively minimal amount of water in our jet a remarkable stroke of luck! Most of the damage has been caused to the more delicate items like switches, which are easy enough to replace.

For the time being she will retain her dual 1/56 Squadron colours but we intend to repaint her in an accurate scheme to represent her service with 257 Squadron. To this end we would welcome any photos of her in service at RAF Wattisham in 1954/55, along with photos of other 257 Squadron Hunters from the time. If you served on 257 Squadron or even flew WN904, we'd love to hear from you!

Current work (as of May 2014) is concentrating on returning the cockpit to a complete and accurate representation of how the aircraft would have looked when it was in service with 257 Squadron. We do not intend to apply electrical power given the rarity of this airframe, but hopefully we will have an isolated battery-powered circuit to illuminate the cockpit in a suitably authentic style for special occasions.

You can follow the restoration efforts on Facebook, in this photo album.

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Sywell Aviation Ltd. is a company registered in England with company no. 03180760 & VAT no. 623 8222 56.
Registered offices: Hall Farm, Sywell, Northampton, NN6 0BT.

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The Hawker Hunter

Design work on what was to become the Hunter began in 1948 and the first flight of the prototype was on 20th July 1951. Soon tagged as a 'super priority' programme, the first production F.Mk.1 flew on 16th May 1953, powered by the Rolls-Royce Avon engine. Designed as a quick reacting day fighter, initially the type was armed only with 4 30mm Aden cannon in the lower nose - held in a modular gun pack that also held 147 rounds of ammunition for each cannon. This could be rapidly swapped out for a fully armed pack as soon as an aircraft had returned from a sortie (knocking down Soviet bombers being the primary task); on exercises, RAF airmen average 6 to 7 minutes to change packs over.

Hunter Cutaway

The F.Mk.2 was powered by an alternate engine, the Armstrong-Siddeley Sapphire, which was not only slightly more powerful but also did not suffer from gun gas ingestion problems exhibited by the Avon-powered F.1. Despite this it would be the Avon that would power most marks of Hunter, with only the F.2 and F.5 being Sapphire powered.

257 Sqn Hunter F.2s

The F.1 and F.2 were very quickly superseded by the improved F.4 and F.5 variants, which had more fuel and hardpoints under the wings for the carriage of drop tanks. Later marks could carry various ordnance under the wings too. The RAF's F.5s saw action during the Suez conflict and export orders soon began to flood in.

By early 1957 the last F.2s were leaving service and no fewer than 19 squadrons operated the Hunter in one form or another. This was truly the heyday of Hunter operations, and by 1963 it was hugely outclassed by more modern fighters like the Lightning. More or less the ultimate variant in RAF use was the FGA.9, optimised for ground attack rather than being a pure fighter. The last few Hunters finally left RAF service in 1994.

19 countries ordered export versions of the Hunter and some remain in active service today, e.g. in Lebanon, and also in civilian-owned but military-contracted work in the UK, Canada and the USA.

Current day Hunter F.58s in UK military service